Laser therapy in dentistry

The healing power of light has long been known. Even the Greeks and the ancient Egyptians used the healing power of sunlight. In today’s times, one of the greatest technological discoveries is the creation of laser devices for the treatment of diseases and for surgical practice. The beginning of the history of the laser begins in 1960. With all the commercial commitment of new laser technologies, the efforts of scientists are mainly focused on understanding the interaction of the laser with tissues and establishing the best protocol for laser therapy.

Lasers are complex light sources, they differ in emission spectrum (light color) and light intensity (light power) that is introduced into the treatment area. There are two groups according to the radiation spectrum. First – emitting in the red infrared region, where the light beam penetrates deeper into the processed tissue. This allows stimulation, coagulation or carbonization of tissue microlayers. Second – lasers in the far infrared region. Here there is a high degree of absorption and conversion of light energy by the surface layers. They are mainly used to treat caries.

The other qualification of lasers is by power (power of light). Low current, high energy diode, high energy ERBEV.

Laser therapy eliminates pathogenic bacteria and achieves anti-inflammatory results. With the help of the laser, the quality of the treated tissues is changed. Laser procedures are almost painless, bloodless, aseptic. Biostimulation of tissues can also be obtained with low-frequency and high-frequency lasers. Lasers are safe and effective in removing tumors and treating other soft tissue problems. Regeneration is increased, recovery is accelerated in the treatment of various gum diseases, pain is removed after and during various surgical procedures. The anti-inflammatory effect of laser treatment is achieved very quickly and lasts longer.

The presence of numerous pathogenic microorganisms in the dental biofilm is one of the main reasons for the development of oral diseases. The standard procedure in the treatment of periodontitis is mechanical removal of the dental biofilm and is combined with antimicrobial drug therapy. The addition of photodynamic laser therapy is extremely effective in killing various pathogens, viruses, parasites and fungi. Mechanical cleaning of tooth surfaces to remove mineralized and non-mineralized bacterial deposits (tartar and plaque) sometimes leads to irreversible damage to the teeth and even to the appearance of gingival recessions, as well as increased sensitivity to cold, heat, touch and other unpleasant sensations. Combining mechanical binding therapy with laser therapy leads to a much faster recovery of tooth-supporting structures. The pronounced anti-microbial effect of the laser accelerates healing and medical treatment with antibiotics and other medications can be avoided. The improvement of the optical fibers allows access to the periodontal pockets and leads to their reduction.

Professional teeth cleaning and laser therapy have been shown to result in longer-lasting destruction of pathogenic bacteria in the pocket and better results. This combination therapy, for example, is recommended in smokers because they lack signs of inflammation. But the damage and progression of the disease is much more severe. Soft tissues in smokers are severely damaged and this makes their treatment difficult. The use of laser therapy leads to faster results for them. It is recommended that during this treatment the person is completely abstinent from smoking, but for those who for one reason or another do not do it, the so-called so-called options are possible. alternative means of smoking, such as tobacco heating products, etc. vape devices. Recently, more and more studies have been published in specialized publications about these products, which emphasize their role in the direction of reducing the harm in smokers through the beneficial effect of various biomarkers on them, instead of the same continuing to use conventional cigarettes.

The laser is also used for teeth whitening, caries diagnosis, aesthetic treatment for hyperpigmentation, bone modeling, removal of papillomas, fibroids, hemangiomas and other tumor-like lesions. It is extremely effective in the treatment of herpes, frequently occurring canker sores, inflammation of the corners of the mouth, and in the restoration of damaged nerve vessels after various treatments. Laser radiation combined with fluoride treatment can increase resistance against caries. The argon laser and without fluorine improves enamel resistance. Periodontal laser therapy is used in gingivectomy (shaping of an overgrown crown), frenulectomy – removal of the bridle between the front upper and lower teeth, augmentation of the dental crown in case of destruction of teeth for dressing. The use of high-frequency lasers in periodontal surgery accelerates healing, is almost bloodless, has almost no postoperative pain, and achieves better comfort.

About the author:

Dr. Yordanka Panayotova

Dr. Yordanka Panayotova
part-time lecturer
Department of Periodontology, Sofia University

Dr. Yordanka Panayotova graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry of MU-Sofia with excellent results. Defends majors in General Dentistry and Scientific Medical Information. In 1995-2000 he worked as a Uniordent specialist. After the establishment of the Department of Periodontology at FDM Sofia, in 2000, he won a competition for a part-time assistant, where he has been teaching until now.
Her interests are primarily focused on surgical periodontal treatment and she has had great success in preserving natural teeth in periodontitis and bone regeneration. She is a graduate of the Italian periodontal school, having completed courses under Prof. Dario Castellani, Prof. Silverio Valerio, Prof. Massimiliano Barcali, Prof. Nicola DiAngelis, Prof. Claudio Modena. Along with this, she has been on hands-on training with the renowned Dr. Joseph Shokrun on the latest developments in PRF treatment.
In 2016, he graduated from the “Modern technologies in the treatment of periodontal diseases” specialty at the University of Genoa.
In 2018, Dr. Panayotova joined the team of the Implantology Clinic of EO DENT, where she applied her professional and qualified skills in the treatment of gingivitis and periodontitis, for which she was selected as a Doctor of Dental Medicine for 2021.

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